|Who can learn:||English veterinarian|
|Scheduled place:||1. year 2. semester|
|Description:||Thematic of the botany
1. Subjects and disciplines of botany, the specificities of veterinary botany. The comparison of plants and animals.
2. The naming of plants, the essence of binomial nomenclature, their rules. The species. Taxonomic categories over and under the species.
3. The characterization of plant cell. The summary of most important cell organelles (cell membranes, ER, Golgy apparatus, mitochondrion ) and the characterization of the organelles occurred only in the plant cells (plasmalemma, tonoplast, plastids, wall, vacuoles).
4. The tissues of the plants (meristems, epidermis system, vascular system, ground tissue system).
5. The plant morphology (root, root-system, modified roots, the tissues of the
root, stem, types of stem,modified stems, histology of stem, secondary grovoth of stem, (annual ring), leaves, types of leaves, histology of leaves, the morphology of reproductive organs: flower, inflorescense, pollination, fertilization (the double fertilization of Angiospermatophyta, types of fruits).
6-7. Taxonomy of plants: algae, lichens, mosses, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermatophyta, Angiospermatophyta. The taxonomic groups are illustrated - first of all - with forage and poisonous plants known from seminar.
The ground processes of the plant physiology.
8. The physiology of water uptake and downtake (osmotic pressure, turgor pressure, water potential, transpiration, evapotranspiration).
9. The mechanism of uptake of different plant nutrients (passive - and active uptake, double ion-uptake, the chemiosmotical theory).
10. The minerals (macro-, micro- and ultramicro- elements, the accumulation of toxic elements). The rules of Liebig and Mitscherlich, the practical importance of these.
11. The photosynthesis (importance, types, general equation), the different phases of photosynthesis: the light- and dark phases. The effect of ecological factors on the photosynthesis, the comparison of C3 and C4 photosynthesis.
12. The main procces of respiration (glycolysis, Krebs cycle, mitochondrial electrontransport chain).
The specific characteristics of plant respiration: endoxidases, the respiration in germination, climacteric, parasitogenic, and cianidresistant respirations.
13. The nitrogen cycle, the main processes of the plant nitrogen cycle (nitrogen fixation, nitrification, nitrate reduction, denitrification).
14. The physiology of plant growth and development. The characterization of growth, the curves of growth. The endogen factors of growth: the plant hormones (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, olygosaccharines, retardants and other synthetic hormons).The characterization of different phases of development (dormancy, germination, vegtative phase, flowering, production of seed and fruit).
15. The plant movements, their main groups: taxis, tropism, nastic movements.
1-2. Cereals: wheats, Triticum spp.: rice, Oryza spp.: oats, Avena sativa.: rye, Secale cereale.: sorghums, Sorghum spp.: triticale, Triticale: barley, Hordeum vulgare: maize, Zea mays: common millet, Panicum miliaceum: foxtail millet, Setaria italica Pseudo-cereals” (e.g. buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum).
Morphological and biological features of the grain crops and their using.
3. Pulse crops (e.g. pea, Pisum sativum: beans, Phaseolus spp.: soybean, Glycine max: lentil, Lens culinaris: lupines, Lupinus spp.: Indian pea, Lathyrus sativus: field bean, Vicia faba: chickpea, Cicer arietinum). Morphological and biological features of the grain legumes, their using, their antinutritional factors.
4. Oil crops (e.g. sunflower, Helianthus annuus: oil brassicas, Brassica spp.: linseed, Linum usitatissinum: peanut, Arachys hypogaea: cotton, Gossypium hirsutum: hemp, Cannabis sativa: castor bean, Ricinus communis).
5. Forage legumes (e.g. medicks, Medicago spp. /lucerne, sickle medick, sand lucerne, black lucerne/, red clover, Trifolium pratense: white clover, Trifolium repens: crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum: alsike clover, trifolium hybridum: sainfoin, Onobrychis viciifolia: Birdsfoot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus: kidney vetch, Anthyllis vulneraria: white sweet clover, Melilotus albus. Their biological characteristics and using, their animal, hygenic effects.
6. Annual forages. Green forage mixtures (winter sowing mixtures, spring sowing mixtures). Roots (e.g. sugar beet, Beta vulgaris convar. altissima: fodder beet, Beta vulgaris convar crassa: carrot, Daucus carota: turnip, Brassica rapa var. rapifera), tubers (e.g. potato, Solanum tuberosum. Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus), stem and leaf crops (e.g. kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and cucurbits (e.g. squash, Cucurbita pepo: melon, Citrullus vulgaris).
7. Pasture and grazed forages. Grasslands. Grasses ( belonging to different categories according to their productivity and feeding value): legumes, „sour” grasses, herbs. Conservation. Ensilage. Hay and haymaking: hay analyses, the characterized. Grass species: Lolium perenne, Lolium multiflorum,Dactylis glomerata,Festuca pratensis, Poa pratensis, Agrostis stolonifera, Trisetum flavescens, Arrhenatherum elatius, Phleum pratense, Alopecurus pratensis, Cynosurus cristatus, Festuca arundinacea, Bromus inermis, Festuca rubra, Phalaris arundinacea, Agropyron cristatum, Beckmannia eruciformis, Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Briza media, Festuca pseudovina, Cynodon dactylon, Agropyron repens, Calamagrostis epigeios, Hordeum murinum, Hordeum hystrix, Avena fatua, Echinochloa crus-galli, Phragmites australis.
8. Medicinal plants
9-14. Poisonous plants: classification according to their effect: botanical characteristics: active principles or substances: habitat.
1.Plant species causing excitement and damage of central nerous system.
2.Plant species paralyzing the central nervous system.
3.Plant species paralyzing the central nervous system and effecting the digestive system and heart functions.
4.Plant species stimulating the central nervous system and effecting the function of the heart and the digestive and urinary system.
5.Plant species causing inflammation and damage of stomach and intestinal canal.
6.Plant species causing inflammation of the respiratory and digestive organs.
7.Plant species causing the liver damage.
Plant species effecting mainly heart functions.
8.Plant species containing compounds with cianogenic potential.
Plant species causing disorders of salt metabolism.
Plant species causing photosensitization.
Plant species causing the lack of blood coagulation interfering with the disorders of prothrombin formation.
Plant species causing mechanical damage.
|Evaluation:||REQUIREMENTS OF BOTANICAL EXAM
1.The seed of poisonous and forage plants
2.Recognition and characterisation of herbars of poisonous and forage plants (Active principles, habitat and effects).
3.Recognition and characterisation of cereals and grass species.
On the basis of questions 1-57.
Attention! It is a general and basic requirement: the precise knowledge of latin names of plants. One must absolve first the practical parts (points 1-3).
When this part of examen is unsuccesful, the student can not be a participant of the second part of examen!
1. Horváth, Zs. - Vetter, J.: Applied botany for Veterinary Students. SZIE AOTK, Budapest, 2003.
2. Frohne, D. - Pfander, H.J.: Poisonous Plants. Manson Publishing Ltd London, UK 2005.
Note: Our students can all botanical preparates (seeds, herbar exemplars, grasses, cereals) in the practical (learning) room of the Department (Rottenbiller street 50, floor 1, room 7) permanently (M-Th: 8-16, Fr: 8-13) to observe, practice and learn!