Z. Bakos, K. Vörös, B. Fenyves, Cs. Péntek: Clinical examination of the equine nervous system / 451
V. Palya, J. Benyeda, T. Süveges: Observations on subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection: Occurrence and economic impact of the disease in meat-type breeder flocks / 460
G. Majoros, K. Erdélyi, V. Sztojkov: Occurrence of Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha (Trematoda: Digenea) in Hungary / 469
E. Miller: The use and misuse of glycocorticoids in veterinary practice / 475
S. C. Budsberg: Current and future trends in the use of NSAIDs for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs / 480
K. Oppel, L. Pallós, K. Temesváry, H. Lakner: Examination of the effect of repeated blood takings on carbohydrate metabolism in rabbits with the determination of glycated proteins and blood glucose level / 486
G. Sályi, Gy. Csaba, E. Gaálné Darin, E. Orosz, M. Láng, G. Majoros, Z. Kunsági, Cs. Niklesz: Effect of the cyanide and heavy metal pollution passed in river Szamos and Tisza on the aquatic flora and fauna with special regard to the fish / 493
F. Havas: About the bacteriological state of notes and coins / 501
N. Solymosi, †I. Medveczky: Using the applications of the Geographic Information System in veterinary epidemiology and in the control of infectious diseases / 504
János Surján is 80 years old (M. Szent-Iványi) / 508
Oszkár Stefán (I. Hajtós) / 509
L. Sugár (ed.): Wild animal diseases (I. Kõházi) / 510
A. Szunyoghy, Gy. Fehér: Anatomy drawing school, human and animal comparative anatomy (B. Mess) / 510
A. Szunyoghy, Gy. Fehér: Menschliche Anatomie für Künstler (B. Mess) / 510
A. Szunyoghy, Gy. Fehér, T. Fáncsi: Anatomy of horse for artists (B. Mess) / 511
Z. Bakos – K. Vörös – B.
Fenyves – G. Péntek:
CLINICAL EXAMINATION OF THE EQUINE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The authors describe the method of
the physical neurological examination of the horse. This work presents
the procedures and the order of examinations used in the international
specialized literature, combined with the traditions of the Marek–Mócsy
school. The purpose is to give help to the clinicians to make a correct
diagnosis by elaborating a protocol which is useful in the localization
of the abnormality, in the prediction of the prognosis and in the identification
of additional and laboratory examinations required for the final diagnosis.
The examination progresses from the head to the tail: 1. Head: behavior, mental status, head tilt and coordination, function of the cerebral nerves. 2. Gait and movement of the body. 3. Neck and forelimbs. 4. Trunk and hind limbs. 5. Tail and anus.
This order is similar to the following anatomical sequence: 1. cerebrum, 2. brain stem, 3. cerebellum, 4. spine, 5. peripheral nerves (and muscles).
Examination of lying horses. The lying status complicates the neurological examination of horses. Lying precludes the possibility of some methods, but there are some spinal reflexes which, in contrast with the standing horse, can be examined. In this type of cases the localization of the abnormality is more important than usual, because the choice between treatment and euthanasia requires the exact anatomical determination of the problem.
V. Palya – J. Benyeda – T. Süveges:
OBSERVATIONS ON SUBGROUP J AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS INFECTION: OCCURANCE AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE DISEASE IN MEAT-TYPE BREEDER FLOCKS
The authors present the results of
the investigations carried out during the course of an outbreak of myeloid
leukosis (ML) in broiler breeder flocks. Diagnosis of ML was based on the
presence of typical gross and microscopic lesions in the affected tissues.
The gross pathological lesions were characterized by skeletal myelocytomas
affecting the inner sternum and ribs (Figure 2), neoplastic enlargement
of the liver (Figure 3), and in some cases gross tumour involvement of
the spleen, kidney and gonads. Microscopically, the tumours consisted of
immature granulated myelocytes, and were present as focal or diffuse infiltrations
in the affected organs (Figure 7, 8, 9 and 10). Although the majority of
tumours were myelocytomatosis, but other tumours including erythroblastosis
(Figure 4 and 11) and lymphomatosis also occured in some cases.
Exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) was isolated from the blood of diseased birds by culture in line 0 C/E chick embryo fibroblasts, confirmed by ELISA testing of cell extracts for p27 group specific antigen (Gag). Increased levels of Gag were detected in high percentage (20–55%) in the egg albumen samples collected from the affected flocks. Although the isolates have not been classified yet as subgroup ALV-J, the occurance of myelocytic myeloid leucosis in adult meat-type chickens may be taken as prima facie evidence of J subgroup ALV infection.
The authors also studied the impact of the new subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection on the production performance of the broiler breeder flocks. The majority of the death in the studied flocks was caused by tumours. In total 24.3% of the animals died due to the direct or indirect consequence of the ALV infection. Egg production was falling behind the expected level by about 32%. As a consequence of the continuous high mortality rate and the suboptimal level of egg production, the flocks had to be slaughtered 2 months before the end of the normal production period. The findings and results presented in the paper are illustrated in 12 figures.
G. Majoros – K. Erdélyi –
OCCURENCE OF PARAFASCIOLOPSIS FASCIOLAEMORPHA (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) IN HUNGARY
The authors found P. fasciolaemorpha flukes (Figure 1, 2) during the examination of red deer livers originating from habitats along the southern reach of the Danube river. This is the first description of this species from Hungary. The authors suspect that though rare, this species must have been present in the cervids of this area for a longer time. The natural host of P. fasciolaemorpha is the elk (Alces alces), and its original distribution was thought to be confined to Poland and north-western Russia. A literature review is given on the potential veterinary importance of this parasite, and attention is drawn to the impossibility of an exact morphological differentiation between those of the newly appeared species and the eggs of the already present flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna) in routine coprological diagnostics (Figure 3, 4 and 5, Table ).
K. Oppel – L. Pallós – K.
Temesváry – H. Lakner:
IN DOMESTIC SEVERAL BLOODPARAMETERS ARE MEASURED IN ORDERTO HELP THE CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TO MONITORTHE METABOLIC STATE OF THE ANIMAL
Blood glucose (blood sugar) is one
of the exact parameters that determines the carbohydrate/energy metabolism
in the domestic animals and in humans. This parameter (if determined only
in itself) is not always reliable, because some changes e.g. sympathoadrenal
activation may alter its actual value.
The effect of some pharmacons on certain blood parameters of the rabbits (n=5–5) was investigated in the experiment. After taking the initial blood (probe 0) 1 ml/bwkg sterile physiological NaCl solution was injected i.p. to the first, so called control group. The other, so called experimental groups were given the following pharmacons also in the form of i.p. injections: 1 ml/bwkg (1:10 diluted ampulla) Atropin, 50 µg/1 bwkg Tonogen, 50 µg/bwkg acetylcholin, and 1 NE/bwkg Insulin. From repeated blood takings at 5., 10., 20., 30., 60., 120., and 240. minutes after injection the following parameters were investigated: hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood plasma glucose, total protein, albumin, albumin %, globulin, IgG; as well as the glycated blood proteins (glycated hemoglobin, GHb and serum/plasma fructosamine, SeFa).
It was concluded, that on the effect of repeated blood takings the glucose concentration even of the control groups increased significantly, while the level of glycated proteins, especially the glycated hemoglobin changed only very little. So, the latter ones proved to be better markers for the long term, more certain determinations of blood glucose levels. That is why the determination of all the three parameters (blood plasma glucose, SeFa and GHb) may increase the reliability of the analysis of carbohydrate metabolism in rabbits.
G. Sályi – Gy. Csaba – E.
Gaálné Darin – E. Orosz – M. Láng – G. Majoros – Z.
Kunsági – Cs. Niklesz:
EFFECT OF THE CYANIDE AND HEAVY METAL POLLUTION PASSED IN RIVER SZAMOS AND TISZA ON THE AQUATIC FLORA AND FAUNA WITH SPECIAL REGARD TO THE FISH
The authors summarise the living world’s damage of the river Tisza and Szamos which has been polluted by the bursting of a reservoir’s dam. The dam belonged to the company „Aurul”, which mines precious metals near to Nagybánya in Roumania. The maximum cyanide concentration of the rivers was decreased from >30 mg/l to 1,49 mg/l, the quantity of copper was determinant among the toxic metals found in the water. Because of the pollution about 127–1241 tons of fish died. The pathological examination of different species of fish didn’t show definitive pathological changes besides the flaming red colour of gills and blood which is characteristic of cyanide poisoning. The cyanide content of the muscular system and gills was determined between 0.22–2.91 mg/kg and 0.4–3.3 mg/kg respectively. The increase of copper was not justified. The taxons of microscopical and macroscopical flora and fauna were damaged in radically different degrees but the examinations give us hope that the ecological catastrophe hasn’t caused enduring damage in the living world.
ABOUT THE BACTERIOLOGICAL STATE OF NOTES AND COINS
The authors examined the bacteriological state of notes (n=115) and coins (n=71) taken directly from domestic and foreign money circulation with impression and washing methods. The number of bacteria was always significantly higher on the notes than on the coins. The difference was even higher in case of moulds. Germs belonging to Enterobacteriaceae family, enterococci and B. cereus were found only on the notes. Antimicrobial effect of the recently printed notes was observed, similarly to that of German notes. In spite that no harm to health confirmed to be in connection with money contaminated with bacteria is known from food-market and general money circulation, it is advisable to isolate the selling and money-collecting activities and the risk of contamination of money-vector should be minimised with frequent hand-washing and use of devices.
N. Solymosi – I. Medveczky:
USING THE APPLICATIONS OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN VETERINARY EPIDEMIOLOGY AND IN THE CONTROL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
The authors demonstrate the possible
research and administrative applications of the Geographic Information
System (GIS) in epidemiology through human and veterinarian examples.The
general features, history most frequently used functions, and structure
of the new technology are presented, further, some of its possible applications
for the Hungarian veterinary health care system and research are suggested.
Beside a review of the relevant literature, the study is based on the authors’
experience drawn from their own GIS development in the field.